导读:

1.
  (1) ... not so much...... as (but) ... 与其说……还不如说……
  (2) ... not so much that.....as (but) that...... 与其说……还不如说……

  (3) ... not so much as..... (=not even) 甚至于不……,连……也不……
  (4) ... might as well ... as..... 与其说……还不如说……
  例1:He is not so much a teacher as a scholar.
  译文:与其说他是老师,还不如说是学者。(注意翻译时动作的对象)
  例2:It wasn't so much his appearance I liked as his personality.
  译文:与其说我喜欢他的外表,不如说我喜欢他的品格。
  例3:It's not so much that I don't want to come but I just haven't got the time.
  译文:倒不是因为我不想来,而是我根本没有时间。
  例4:He didn't so much as say thank you after all we'd done for him.
  译文:我们为他干了那么多事,他甚至连谢谢都没有说一声。
  例5:You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him.
  译文:与其将钱借给他,还不如把钱丢进大海。(注意翻译时动作的对象)
  [注意]:more ... than ...
  1) she is more beautiful than her sister. 她比她姐姐漂亮。
  2) George is more intelligent than aggressive. 与其说乔治言行放肆,不如说他聪颖过人。
  以上第1)句是more... than结构的一般用法,即在两个不同的事物之间就同一方面作比较;而第2)句是就同一个人的两个不同方面作比较。因此要译成“与其说……还不如说……”。
  more...than结构在上述1) 2)两句中的用法也适用于less ... than结构,得出相反的含义:
  例如:
  1) John is less daring than quick-witted. 与其说约翰胆大,不如说他脑子灵活。
  2) George was less intelligent than aggressive. 与其说乔治聪颖过人,不如说他言行放肆。
  2.几个不定代词的固定搭配:
  have none of: 不参加;不准;不接受
  I will have none of your stupid ideas! 我才不接受你那愚蠢的想法!
  He was offered a job but he said he’d have none of it. 他有一个工作机会,但他说他不接受。
  none but (=nothing but): 只有 (=only)
  None but the brave deserves the fair. 只有英雄才配得上美人。
  She chose none but the best. 她只选最好的。
  She is nothing but a child. 她只不过是个孩子。
  none other than: (表示惊讶)不是别人,正是…… (= no one else but)
  It’s none other than Tom! We thought you were in Africa.
  none the +比较级词+ for: 毫不,一点也不
  He spent 2 weeks in hospital but he’s none the better for it.
  他在医院里待了两个星期,但一点也没好转。
  My car is none the worse for wear. 我的车子一点也没有损耗。
  none the wiser: 不知情
  If we take only one piece of cake, mother will be none the wiser.
  如果我们只拿一小块蛋糕,母亲是不会知道的。
  none too: (在形容词或副词前) 不太;一点都不
  The service in this restaurant is none too fast. 这家旅馆的服务一点效率都没有。
  anything but: ①除---之外什么都(此处的but等于except)②决不(=not at all)
  I eat anything but (except) fish. 除了鱼,我什么都吃。
  She is anything but a good cook. 她决不是个好厨师。(即:除了好厨师,她什么都是。)
  anything of: ①(疑问句/条件句)一点点;②(否定句)一点也(没有)
  Is he anything of a poet? 他有一点点诗人的样子吗?
  I haven’t seen anything of him lately. 最近我没有见过他。
  for anything: (否定句)(给什么都)不,决不
  I won’t go there for anything. 我决不去那里。
  or anything: (意味着还有其他的可能性)
  If Bernard wants to call me or anything, I’ll be here all day.
  如果伯纳德要找我或什么的,我整天都会在这儿。
  if anything: 若有任何不同的话
  If anything, my new job is harder than my old one.
  要说有什么不同的话,我的新工作反而比旧工作要难些。
  or something: 或什么的(表示说话者不能肯定)
  She is a stewardess or something. 她是空姐或什么的。
  something like: 有点像,大约
  An airship is shaped something like a cigar. 飞船的形状有点像雪茄。
  something of a...: 多少有点,有几分像,略懂
  he’s something of a book collector. 他有几分像书籍收藏家。
  something to / in: (叙述等)有些道理
  There’s something to / in what you say; I’ll take your advice.
  你说的有些道理,我会接受你的建议
  have / be something to do with: 与……有关
  I think Guy Fawkes had / was something to do with a plan to blow up the bridge.
  我想盖佛克跟图谋炸毁桥梁有关。
  nothing but (= none but = only): 仅仅,只不过
  We could see nothing but fog. 除了雾之外我们什么也看不见。
  for nothing: ①免费的; ②徒劳的; ③无缘无故的
  She got the ticket for nothing. 她免费得到那张票。
  All our preparation for nothing! No one’s even come to the party.
  我们为宴会所作的准备都白费了! 连一个人都没来。
  They quarreled for nothing. 他们无缘无故地争吵。
  make nothing of: (常和can一起用)不理解;不重视,轻视 (= think nothing of)
  I could make nothing of the passage. 我不理解这篇文章。
  He makes / thinks nothing of working ten hours a day. 他不在乎一天工作十小时。
  to say nothing of: 更不用说(= not to mention / without mentioning)
  Three people were badly hurt, to say nothing of damage to the building.
  三个人受了重伤,建筑物的损害更不用说了。
  have nothing to do with: 与……无关
  I have nothing to do with the accident. 我与这场事故无关。
  nothing if not: 格外地;非常地 (= very / much / extremely)
  He was nothing if not clever. (= He was very clever.) 他格外聪明。
  nothing of: 无……的部分;无……的气质
  There was nothing of the lady in her behavior. 她的举止根本没有淑女的气质。
  区别:
  all but 几乎,差一点,除……以外其余都是
  but for要不是
  but that+从句:若不是……
  例1:She all but fainted when she heard the news.
  译文:她听到这一消息时几乎晕倒了。
  注:此句中a11 but意为nearly,almost。
  试对比:
  All but the little children thought that the trip was exciting.
  译文:除了小孩,大家都认为这次旅行是激动人心的。
  此句中all but意为a11 except。
  例2:But for the rain we should have a pleasant journey.
  译文:要不是下雨,我们的旅行本来是愉快的。
  例3:He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.
  译文:若不是他那时缺钱,他是会帮助我们的。
  注1).but that引导的从句中谓语用陈述语气。2).but that有灵活的译法。如:Nothing would satisfy that child but that I place her on my lap.(那孩子什么都不要,只要我把她抱在怀里。)
  3.“名词+or+名词”结构中or后的名词是同位语,应译为“即……;或者称……”
  例1:Moreover, technology includes techniques, or ways to do things, as well as the machines that may or may not be necessary to apply them.
  译文:再者,除机器外技术还包括技艺,即制作方法,而动用这些技艺并不一定都需要机器。
  4.“only + to do”意为“……,结果却……”,即表示与句子谓语动作的目的相反的结果。
  例1: They don't have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema or the opera, only
  to discover, perhaps, that the show is disappointing.
  译文:他们不必花钱去戏院、电影院或歌剧院买价格很贵的票,(如果去了,)结果却可能发现,所演的节目令人失望。
  例2: They hurried there only to find the meeting canceled.
  译文:他们匆匆忙忙赶到那儿,结果却发现会议被取消了。
  5.not more / -er than 与 no more / -er than 结构
  比较:
  John is not better than Tom.
  John is no better than Tom.
  前一句表示“约翰不比汤姆好”,属于普通的比较结构;后一例用了no 情况就不同了。no better than 相当于as bad as,含义是两人一样坏。这里,“no + 形容词或副词比较级 + than”所表示的可以说是该形容词或副词的反意。
  例如: no richer than = as poor as 和……一样穷
  no bigger than = as small as 和……一样小
  no later than = as early as 和……一样早
  同样地:
  I have not taken more than six courses this semester.
  I have taken no more than six courses this semester.
  前一句的含义是本学期选的课不多于六门;后一句的含义是只选了六门。强调“少”。
  上述结构与表示前后都否定的no more...than (= not...any more than)又有所不同:

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